Valsamonero monastery (Aghios Fanourios)

Moni Vrontisiou and Moni Varsamonero: A Comparative Analysis

Historical Significance

Moni Vrontisiou boasts a more extensive and well-documented history, tracing its roots back to the 9th century. It flourished during the Venetian era, surpassing even its parent monastery, Moni Varsamonero, in wealth and influence. Moni Vrontisiou played a pivotal role in the Cretan struggle for independence, serving as a refuge for displaced monks and a hub for revolutionary activities.

Moni Varsamonero’s historical narrative, on the other hand, is less clearly defined. Its exact foundation date remains uncertain, with some sources suggesting an origin as early as the 14th century. Initially a dependency of Moni Vrontisiou, Moni Varsamonero gained prominence in the 15th and 16th centuries. However, its fortunes declined in the 18th century, leading to its abandonment and eventual designation as a metochi of Moni Vrontisiou.

Architectural Marvels

Moni Vrontisiou’s architectural splendor is evident in its fortified perimeter wall, two-story main building, and separate bell tower. The monastery’s crown jewel is the 15th-century marble fountain at the entrance, adorned with intricate carvings depicting biblical scenes. The main church, a two-aisled structure, features fragments of 14th-century frescoes showcasing the high level of artistic mastery prevalent in Crete during that period.

Moni Varsamonero, while smaller in scale, still exudes architectural charm. Its most notable feature is the well-preserved church, a rare example of a structure with two narthexes. The church’s interior walls bear captivating frescoes dating from the 14th and 15th centuries, depicting scenes from the lives of saints and biblical narratives.

Artistic Treasures

The frescoes at Moni Vrontisiou, though fragmented, offer a glimpse into the artistic style of the 14th century. They showcase the influence of Byzantine and Italian artistic traditions, reflecting the cultural exchange prevalent during that era.

Moni Varsamonero’s frescoes, on the other hand, are more extensive and better preserved. They represent a crucial phase in the development of Cretan hagiography, characterized by a vibrant use of color, expressive figures, and detailed compositions. The frescoes at Moni Varsamonero are particularly significant for their depiction of scenes from the life of Saint Fanourios, the monastery’s patron saint.


Moni Vrontisiou and Moni Varsamonero, each with its unique history and architectural features, stand as gems of Crete’s cultural heritage. While Moni Vrontisiou’s prominence and well-documented past captivate visitors, Moni Varsamonero’s lesser-known history and exquisite frescoes offer a glimpse into the island’s rich artistic legacy. Together, these monasteries serve as a testament to Crete’s enduring faith, artistic expression, and resilience.

Earth Road

Earth road in good condition from Vorizia village

Ottoman period

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